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    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Amenorrhea

    The absence of menstruation for six months or more.

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    A

    Anovulation

    Lack of ovulation that can occur with or without menstruation.

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    A

    Assisted Hatching

    A procedure used to break down the thick outer wall of an embryo, to facilitate implantation.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

    The technologies used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    A

    Azoospermia

    The absence of sperm in semenacy.

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    B

    Biochemical Pregnancy

    A very early pregnancy loss, before a pregnancy can be seen on ultrasound. The fertilized egg implants, but the embryo doesn't develop.

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    C

    Canceled Cycle

    Stopping an ART cycle due to problems of follicle development, lack of fertilization, or other causes.

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    C

    Chromosome

    Structures that carry genetic material in a linear order. Humans have 23 pairs.

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    C

    Clinical Pregnancy

    A pregnancy that is confirmed with an ultrasound.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid)

    A medication that stimulates ovulation and can cause more than one egg to form per month.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Corpus Luteum

    The gland within the ovary that secretes progesterone after ovulation and during pregnancy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    C

    Cycle

    A round of fertility treatment that takes about a month between start and completion.

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    D

    Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    A procedure to dilate the cervix and remove the uterine lining or early abnormal pregnancy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    D

    Donor Egg

    Eggs donated by healthy young women that can be implanted in infertile women for pregnancy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    D

    Donor Sperm

    Sperm donated by healthy young men that are frozen for six months or more before use in intrauterine insemination (IUI) or IVF.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Ectopic Pregnancy

    A pregnancy that implants outside of the uterus that can cause severe complications.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Egg Retrieval

    Use of a thin needle to remove an egg from the ovarian follicles for IVF.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    E

    Embryo

    The early stage of the human fetus ,between implantation and eight weeks of pregnancy.

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    E

    Embryo Transfer

    Placement of the fertilized egg into the uterus using a catheter after IVF.

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    E

    Endometriosis

    The presence of endometrial tissue (the uterine lining) in areas outside of the uterus such as the tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cavity.

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    E

    Endometrium

    The lining of the uterus.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    F

    Fertility Preservation

    Preserving eggs, embryos, and sperm in a controlled freezing environment for future fertility treatment .

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    F

    Fertilization

    The joining of the egg and sperm for pregnancy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    F

    Fibroid

    A benign tumor made of fibrous and muscle tissue occurring in the wall of the uterus.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    F

    Follicle

    One of the small ovarian sacs containing an egg.

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    F

    Follicular Phase

    The first phase of the menstrual cycle, starting with day 1 when menstrual bleeding begins as full flow and ovarian follicles start to development.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    G

    Gonadotropinse

    Hormones used during ovulation induction to encourage follicular and egg development.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    hCG test

    A blood test that measures levels of hCG in early pregnancy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hormonet

    Chemicals produced in one organ in the body that regulate activities of other organsy.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hypothyroidism

    The thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a slow metabolism and fatigue, and impaired fertility.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

    An X-ray examination using contrast injected into the uterus to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    H

    Hysteroscopy

    A surgical procedure in which a telescope-like device is inserted through the cervix to view the inside of the uterus.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    Implantation

    After fertilization, the embedding of the egg in the lining of the uterus.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) process that involves ovarian stimulation, extraction of the egg from the ovary, and combining the egg with the sperm outside of the female's body for fertilization.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    I

    Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    The injection of a single sperm into an egg during IVF.

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    I

    Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    The introduction of specially prepared sperm directly into the uterus through the cervix for fertilization.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    K

    Karyotype

    A test that analyzes the chromosomes for potential genetic abnormalities.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    K

    Kaparoscopy

    A telescopic instrument is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to view the pelvis, ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    L

    Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Surge

    A surge of LH followed by the release of an egg from a follicle in the ovaries. Ovulation predictor kits measure LH in urine.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    L

    Luteal Phase

    After ovulation, the final phase of the menstrual cycle that ends with pregnancy or menses.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    M

    Miscarriage

    Loss of the embryo or fetus which occurs in about 20% of pregnancies.

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    M

    Mittleschmerz

    Occurring around ovulation, some women notice this as a slight pain or cramping low in the abdomen.

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    M

    Myomectomy

    The surgical removal of benign fibroid tumors from the uterine wall.

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    O

    Oligomenorrhea

    Menstrual periods occurring less frequently than normal.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    O

    Oligospermia

    Low levels of sperm in the semen.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    O

    Oocyte

    The female sex cell that is produced in the ovaries (also called egg, ovum, gamete).

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    O

    Ovarian Failure

    Failure of the ovary to function adequately, usually associated with elevated FSH levels and lack of ovarian response to FSH stimulation.

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    O

    Ovarian Cyst

    A fluid-filled sac in the ovary that can vary by size; may or may not be problematic.

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    O

    Ovulation

    When the ovary releases a mature egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle.

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    O

    Ovulation Induction

    Use of a group of medications (fertility drugs) to improve hormone levels and/or boost the development and release of eggs.

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    P

    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    A hormonal and metabolic imbalance associated with infrequent ovulation that may include symptoms like menstrual problems, weight gain, infertility and hair/skin problems.

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    P

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD and Screening (PGS)

    The procedure used to detect genetic or chromosomal abnormalities on embryos created during an IVF cycle.

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    P

    Progesterone

    The corpus luteum in the ovary produces this hormone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy after ovulation.

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    R

    Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Two or more failed pregnancies.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    S

    Semen Analysis (SA)

    Examination of semen under a microscope to assess sperm count, movement (motility) and shape (morphology).

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    S

    Sperm

    Male sex cell carried in semen that holds genetic information from the male.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    T

    Testicular/Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA)

    Sperm are extracted from the testis or epididymis with a needle.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    V

    Vaginal Ultrasound

    Technique used to view follicles, fetus, and other soft tissues by projecting sound waves through a probe inserted into the vagina.

    Component: Glossary List Item Categories:
    V

    Varicocele

    Varicose veins found in the scrotum that cause an abnormal flow of blood in the male genitalia and can sometimes lead to male infertility.