The absence of menstruation for six months or more.
Lack of ovulation that can occur with or without menstruation.
A procedure used to break down the thick outer wall of an embryo, to facilitate implantation.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
The technologies used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy.
The absence of sperm in semenacy.
A very early pregnancy loss, before a pregnancy can be seen on ultrasound. The fertilized egg implants, but the embryo doesn't develop.
Stopping an ART cycle due to problems of follicle development, lack of fertilization, or other causes.
Structures that carry genetic material in a linear order. Humans have 23 pairs.
A pregnancy that is confirmed with an ultrasound.
Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid)
A medication that stimulates ovulation and can cause more than one egg to form per month.
The gland within the ovary that secretes progesterone after ovulation and during pregnancy.
A round of fertility treatment that takes about a month between start and completion.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
A procedure to dilate the cervix and remove the uterine lining or early abnormal pregnancy.
Eggs donated by healthy young women that can be implanted in infertile women for pregnancy.
Sperm donated by healthy young men that are frozen for six months or more before use in intrauterine insemination (IUI) or IVF.
A pregnancy that implants outside of the uterus that can cause severe complications.
Use of a thin needle to remove an egg from the ovarian follicles for IVF.
The early stage of the human fetus ,between implantation and eight weeks of pregnancy.
Placement of the fertilized egg into the uterus using a catheter after IVF.
The presence of endometrial tissue (the uterine lining) in areas outside of the uterus such as the tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cavity.
The lining of the uterus.
Preserving eggs, embryos, and sperm in a controlled freezing environment for future fertility treatment .
The joining of the egg and sperm for pregnancy.
A benign tumor made of fibrous and muscle tissue occurring in the wall of the uterus.
One of the small ovarian sacs containing an egg.
The first phase of the menstrual cycle, starting with day 1 when menstrual bleeding begins as full flow and ovarian follicles start to development.
Hormones used during ovulation induction to encourage follicular and egg development.
A blood test that measures levels of hCG in early pregnancy.
Chemicals produced in one organ in the body that regulate activities of other organsy.
The thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a slow metabolism and fatigue, and impaired fertility.
An X-ray examination using contrast injected into the uterus to observe the uterus and fallopian tubes.
A surgical procedure in which a telescope-like device is inserted through the cervix to view the inside of the uterus.
After fertilization, the embedding of the egg in the lining of the uterus.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) process that involves ovarian stimulation, extraction of the egg from the ovary, and combining the egg with the sperm outside of the female's body for fertilization.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
The injection of a single sperm into an egg during IVF.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
The introduction of specially prepared sperm directly into the uterus through the cervix for fertilization.
A test that analyzes the chromosomes for potential genetic abnormalities.
A telescopic instrument is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to view the pelvis, ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Surge
A surge of LH followed by the release of an egg from a follicle in the ovaries. Ovulation predictor kits measure LH in urine.
After ovulation, the final phase of the menstrual cycle that ends with pregnancy or menses.
Loss of the embryo or fetus which occurs in about 20% of pregnancies.
Occurring around ovulation, some women notice this as a slight pain or cramping low in the abdomen.
The surgical removal of benign fibroid tumors from the uterine wall.
Menstrual periods occurring less frequently than normal.
Low levels of sperm in the semen.
The female sex cell that is produced in the ovaries (also called egg, ovum, gamete).
Failure of the ovary to function adequately, usually associated with elevated FSH levels and lack of ovarian response to FSH stimulation.
A fluid-filled sac in the ovary that can vary by size; may or may not be problematic.
When the ovary releases a mature egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
Use of a group of medications (fertility drugs) to improve hormone levels and/or boost the development and release of eggs.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A hormonal and metabolic imbalance associated with infrequent ovulation that may include symptoms like menstrual problems, weight gain, infertility and hair/skin problems.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD and Screening (PGS)
The procedure used to detect genetic or chromosomal abnormalities on embryos created during an IVF cycle.
The corpus luteum in the ovary produces this hormone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy after ovulation.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Two or more failed pregnancies.
Semen Analysis (SA)
Examination of semen under a microscope to assess sperm count, movement (motility) and shape (morphology).
Male sex cell carried in semen that holds genetic information from the male.
Testicular/Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
Sperm are extracted from the testis or epididymis with a needle.
Technique used to view follicles, fetus, and other soft tissues by projecting sound waves through a probe inserted into the vagina.
Varicose veins found in the scrotum that cause an abnormal flow of blood in the male genitalia and can sometimes lead to male infertility.